20 Peta-peta Kuno menarik

Works of art in and of themselves, these ancient maps reveal a great deal more than the geographical knowledge of our ancestors. They tell stories of war and triumph, reveal myths and biases, and document modes of thought that have long been obsolete.1

The Island of California

Creator: Joan Vinckeboons
Date: Around 1650
Why it’s cool: Believe it or not, explorers believed California was an island for a very long time and this map depicts that assumption. It would take over 50 years after the creation of this map before it was confirmed that California is indeed attached to the mainland of America.

2Map of the Battle of Catalan

Creator: Unknown
Date: 19th Century
Why it’s cool: Western students are taught little of South America’s struggle for independence from the European powers. This map depicts the Battle of Catalan, January 4, 1817, in which the Portuguese Army, operating from southern Brazil, defeated forces led by José Gervasio Artigas, the leader in the struggle for Uruguayan independence.

3The Game of France

Creator: Pierre Duval
Date: 1659
Why it’s cool: A chutes-and-ladders game made up of 63 squares, each representing a French province, the game offers insight into the clichés and stereotypes that Parisians applied to the French provinces. Brittany is noted for its debauchery, Tours for its lovely avenues, Forez for its knives and scissors, and Ponthieu as a theater of operations for the king’s army.4Clark’s Map of 1810

Creator: William Clark
Date: 1810
Why it’s cool: We’ve all heard the story of Lewis and Clark, but it’s not often we take a look at their actual handy work. Clark’s map served as a valuable guide for trappers, traders, scientists, and adventurers, as well as shaped, for more than a quarter century, how Americans understood the geography of the American West.

5Map of the Attack and the Taking of the Island of Grenada

Creator: Pierre Ozanne
Date: 1779
Why it’s cool: This elegant, well-executed French military map of the vicinity of St. George’s and the harbor depicts the July 1779 French attack on British-held Grenada. The map includes coastline, coastal features, anchorages, a grid of St. George’s, other settlements, British batteries and fortifications, roads, and pictorial representations of vegetation, cultivated fields, and relief.

6Journey and Life of the Patriarch Abraham

Creator: Tilemann Stella
Date: 1590
Why it’s cool: A figure that looms large in multiple religions, this map traces Abraham’s journey to the Holy Land from the land of his birth, identified in the Bible as Ur of the Chaldees. The main map shows places in the Holy Land identified with Abraham, and is framed with colored illustrations of scenes from Abraham’s long and eventful life.

7Map of Venice

Creator: Wagner & Debes
Date: 1886
Why it’s cool: This high quality map was included in guide books for wealthy tourists in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. It displays in great detail the canals and streets of Venice, which have changed little to this day.

8Belgium as a Lion

Creator: Jodocus Hondius
Date: 1611
Why it’s cool: What’s more badass than a map of Belgium? Why a map of Belgium shaped like a lion. In the 16th and 17th centuries, maps of the Low Countries frequently were drawn in the form of a lion, known by its Latin designation, Leo Belgicus. Symbols of Dutch patriotism, these maps often appeared in 17th-century Dutch paintings, hanging on the walls of inns or private homes, as in Jan Vermeer’s The Painter and His Studio.

9Plan for the Improvement and Beautification of the City of Paris

Creator: Charles de Wailly
Date: 1789
Why it’s cool: One of the first examples of urban planning, de Wailly envisioned a profound remaking of the entire Parisian landscape. His plan included laying out large new avenues, constructing public squares, erecting monuments, providing more housing, conjoining the city’s islands (Cité, Saint-Louis, and Louviers), and improving the flow of the Seine. De Wailly planned not only to beautify the city, but to maximize the efficiency of urban space.

10Maps of Bermuda, Iceland, Jan Mayen Island, and Newfoundland

Creator: Vincenzo Coronelli
Date: 1692
Why it’s cool: Vincenzo Coronelli (1650-1718) was one of the most important figures in the history of Western cartography. Although best known for his globes, he also produced numerous maps and atlases. These maps of four North Atlantic islands appear on a single plate in his Corso geografico universale, a two-volume work published in 1692. The map of “Iceland” is erroneous, and is based on a claim by the Venetian Nicolò Zeno, later discredited, that around 1380 he undertook a voyage to the northern seas where he found a large island that he called Frislandia. The map of Newfoundland (Isola di Terra Nuova) correctly notes its discovery in 1596 by John Cabot, a citizen of Venice, and his son Sebastian.

11New Atlas of China, Chinese Tartary and Tibet

Creator: Jean Baptiste Bourguignon d’Anville
Date: 1737
Why it’s cool: D’Anville’s maps of China were based on a survey of the Chinese empire that was ordered by the emperor in 1708 and carried out by the Chinese, but under the supervision of Jesuit priests resident in China. The detail about the interior of China was far superior to any previous Western map or atlas. D’Anville’s work remained a standard Western source for the geography of China and adjacent regions until well into the 19th century, when it finally was superseded by more accurate maps.

Assault and Seige of the Fortified City of Khodzhend

12Assault and Seige of the Fortified City of Khodzhend

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